National Cotton Scenario

  • Growth of Indian Cotton
    • Area, production and Yields
    • Cotton balance sheet
  • India's share in World


Growth of Indian Cotton

Area Production and Yield:


Over the years, country has achieved significant quantitative increase in cotton production. Till 1970s, country used to import massive quantities of cotton in the range of 8.00 to 9.00 lakh bales per annum. However, after Government launched special schemes like intensive cotton production programmes through successive five-year plans, that cotton production received the necessary impetus through increase in area and sowing of Hybrid varieties around mid 70s. Since then country has become self-sufficient in cotton production barring few years in the late 90s and early 20s when large quantities of cotton had to be imported due to lower crop production and increasing cotton requirements of the domestic textile industry.

Since launch of Technology Mission on Cotton by Government of India in February 2000 significant achievements have been made in increasing yield and production through development of high yielding varieties, appropriate transfer of technology, better farm management practices, increased area under cultivation of Bt cotton hybrids etc. All these developments have resulted into a turnaround in cotton production in the country since last 6/7 years. The yield per hectare which was stagnant at about 300 kg/ha for so many years, jumped to 506 kgs in the year 2017-18 and had reached to the level of 566 kgs per hectare in the year 2013-14. Though the per hectare yield is still lower against the world average of about 762 kgs per hectare, the fundamental changes that are taking place in the realm of cotton cultivation in the country, are having the potential to take the current productivity level near to the world average in the near future.

The details regarding area, production and yield in the country for 2018-19 vis-à-vis 2019-20 are given here as under:

Year Area in lakh hectares Production in lakh bales Yield kgs per hectare
2018-19*(P) 126.58 330.00 443
2019-20*(P) 125.84 360.00 486
Source: Cotton Advisory Board P-Provisional *As per CAB meeting 28.11.19


Cotton Balance Sheet:

Based on the cotton production in the country and its consumption by different segments of domestic textile industry, Cotton Balance Sheet for the current cotton season 2018-19 vis-à-vis 2019-20 as drawn by Cotton Advisory Board is given hereunder:

Quantity in lakh bales of 170 kgs
Item 2019-2020 (P)* 2018-2019 (P)*
Opening Stock 44.41 42.91
Crop Size 360.00 330.00
Imports 25.00 31.00
Total 429.41 403.91
Demand Supply
Mill Consumption 288.00 274.50
Small Mill Consumption 25.00 25.20
Non-Mill Consumption 18.00 16.00
Total Consumption 331.00 315.50
Exports 50.00 44.00
Total Demand 381.00 359.50
Carry Forward 48.41 44.41
Source: Cotton Advisory Board meeting dated 28-11-19 (P)*Provisional

India's Share in World:


India has the distinction of having the largest area under cotton cultivation which is about 37% of the world area under cotton cultivation between 12.5 million hectares to 12.60 million hectares.

Quantity in lakh bales of 170 kgs
Crop Year 2019-20 (P)* World India
Area in Million Hectares 34.31 12.60
Source: ICAC journal “ Cotton this Month”, Cotton Advisory Board *P-Provisional


India is one of the largest producer of cotton in the world accounting for about 23% of the world cotton production. The yield per kgs hectare which is presently 466 kgs/ha is still lower against the world average yield of about 762 Kgs kgs /ha.

Crop Year 2019-20 (P)* World India
Production in Million MT 26.15 6.12
S*P-Provisional Source: ICAC journal “ Cotton this Month”, Cotton Advisory Board


The domestic textile industry is one of the largest industry in the country and has witnessed a phenomenal growth in the last two decades in terms of installed spindlage and yarn production. The significant features of this growth include installation of open-end rotors and setting up of export-oriented units. Technology-wise, Indian spinning industry has been able to keep pace with the international technology trends. India has become one of the largest consumer of cotton i.e, about 25% of World Cotton Consumption.

Crop Year 2019-20(P)* World India
Consumption in Million Mt.tons 22.54 5.63
*P-Provisional Source: ICAC journal “ Cotton this Month”, Cotton Advisory Board

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